In terms of gold reserves, the republic is ranked 4th in the world, and in terms of its production it is in 7th place (about 92 tons of gold annually), in copper reserves it is 10-11th; uranium – 11-12 place, and for its production – 7-8 place (According to the World Nuclear Association, the European Nuclear Society and the British Geological Survey)
Sectoral structure of GDP for 2011: agriculture – 17.6%, industry – 24.0%, services – 23.9%, transport and communications – 11.7%, trade and public catering – 8.8%, construction – 6, 0%, net taxes – 7.8%. The share of agriculture (37.4%), industry (26.3%), construction (10.4%), but a smaller share in GDP of net taxes (-0.3%), services (18, 0%), trade and public catering (3.9%), transport and communications (4.2%) in 1991.
Large-scale privatization was carried out in the country in 1994-1995: 18,281 enterprises were transferred into private hands and transformed into joint-stock companies in two years. The second smaller wave of privatization occurred in 2001–2005, when 6,698 enterprises were privatized. If in the course of the first wave, about 21% of enterprises were privatized through corporatization, then in 2001–2005 this figure was just over 8%. In 2007–2010, privatization was carried out exclusively through direct sales, and not by corporatization. In total, in 1994–2010, 30,731 enterprises were denationalized (corporatization and direct sales to private hands) in the republic.
Nowadays, about 40 deposits with uranium reserves which are based on 27 deposits, have been explored in the country. According to the information center of the State Committee on Geology and Mineral Resources of the Republic, the explored and estimated uranium reserves amount to 185.8 thousand tons. The republic does not have its own atomic industry, all the low-enriched uranium produced is exported).
A powerful mineral resource base is created in Uzbekistan, which is one of the main items of foreign exchange earnings in the country’s economy. Today, this base is made up of more than 1,800 deposits and about 1,644 prospective manifestations of minerals, 118 types of mineral raw materials, of which 65 are developed. The mineral resources of Uzbekistan are estimated by experts at about 11 trillion dollars.
Developed cotton market. A record point grain harvest was collected (more than 8 million tons) in 2014 . Significant intact oil and gas reserves. Current gas production makes a decisive contribution to power generation. Experience in the production of agricultural machines. In the city of Asaka, there is a large factory, GM Uzbekistan, which produces cars under the licenses of Daewoo and Chevrolet. Also Tashkent Tractor Plant produces agricultural machines and equipment and spare parts for them.
The national company Uzbekneftigaz ranks 11th in the world in terms of natural gas production (annual gas production is 60-70 billion m³). 194 hydrocarbon fields, including gas and condensate – 98, oil and gas, oil and gas condensate – 96.
The largest bill, 50,000 soums is equivalent to 6.22 US dollars (as of May 2018).
On September 5 2017, the Uzbek authorities devalued the national currency, bringing down its rate by 48%: up to 8,100 soums compared to 4,210.35 soums the day before. At the same time, restrictions on the purchase of foreign currency by individuals (with the exception of individual entrepreneurs) were retained.
From April 1 2018, cash withdrawal of foreign currency from international plastic cards became available without restrictions.
In the structure of GDP, agriculture has a significant weight – 38%, industry accounts for 26%, services account for 36%. Despite the crisis, GDP grew by 8.5% in 2010. The country ranks third in the world in exports and sixth in cotton production in 2008.
The most important agricultural products of Uzbekistan in addition to cotton are fruits, vegetables and grains (wheat, rice and corn).
The main energy resources of the state are natural gas (proven reserves of up to 2 trillion m³, including the large Shurtan (0.5 trillion m³) and Alan (0.2 trillion m³) deposits, the large Urga field has been explored with reserves of up to 1.5 trillion m³ ), coal (Angren deposit with reserves of up to 1.9 billion tons of brown coal), uranium ore reserves (total up to 230 thousand tons of uranium, including the largest – Uchkuduk deposit) and hydropower (Chirchik, Ahangaran (Angren) rivers, Surkhandarya) and many small). According to the global bank HSBC (report World in 2050), Uzbekistan is considered as one of the fastest growing economies of the world (top 26) in the coming decades.
By the end of the Soviet period, the main crop of the republic was cotton which in the scale of Uzbekistan was practically monoculture. During the period of independence, the agricultural sector reoriented from cotton to other crops: the area under wheat grew from 433.2 thousand hectares to 1404.1 thousand hectares, and the average yield from 12.8 centners per hectare to 47.3 centners per hectare. As a result, in 1991–2013, the annual production of raw cotton fell from 4,446.0 thousand tons to 3,460.1 thousand tons, but the annual production of food crops sharply increased: grain 3.5 times (from 1908.2 thousand tons to 6612.2 thousand tons), vegetables 2.3 times (from 3348.0 thousand tons to 7767.4 thousand tons), potatoes 5.9 times (from 351.2 thousand tons to 2057.1 thousand tons), melons 1.5 times (from 925.8 thousand tons to 1418.4 thousand tons), fruit 3.9 times (from 516.6 thousand tons to 2052.8 thousand tons) , grapes 2.5 times (from 480.4 thousand tons to 1206.0 thousand tons). Also, over the period of independence, animal husbandry developed: meat production increased 2.1 times (from 800.2 thousand tons to 1672.9 thousand tons), and milk increased 2.2 times (from 3331.4 thousand tons to 7310.9 thousand tons) between 1991–2013. A significant role in the production of agricultural products is played by small (an average of 18 workers) farms which were 73.5 thousand and which occupied an area of 5.8 million hectares in the republic in 2013.
Dam of the Gissarak hydroelectric station
At the beginning of 2013, 45 power plants with a total capacity of more than 12.4 thousand MW were operating in the power system of Uzbekistan, including the total capacity of 16 power plants of the SJSC Uzbekenergo – more than 12 thousand MW. The potential for electricity production – 56-57 billion kWh.
The installed capacity of power plants in Uzbekistan is about 50% of the generating capacity of the entire Unified Energy System of Central Asia.
Electricity production in Uzbekistan in 2016 amounted to 59 billion kWh.
The volume of heat supplied to consumers in 2012 amounted to 18.876 million gigacalories.
Electricity generation is carried out mainly at thermal power plants, including at Angren, Novo-Angren, Navoi, Talimarjan and other stations. The largest power station in Uzbekistan and throughout Central Asia is the Syrdarya TPP – an installed capacity of 3000 MW (commissioned in 1966).
Hydroelectric power plants of Uzbekistan: Gissarak hydroelectric station (power – 45 MW), Farhad hydroelectric station (power – 126 MW), Andizhan hydroelectric station (power – 190 MW), Charvak hydroelectric station (power – 600 MW), Chirchik-Bozsu cascade of hydroelectric station (power – 1200 MW).
Fuel and energy resources
Today, in the structure of the primary fuel and energy resources of the country 97% are oil and gas, 2.3% – coal, 0.7% – hydropower. One of the largest companies in the country is UzTransGaz.
Oil and gas resources
Geological reserves of oil – 5 billion tons.
Proved oil reserves – 100 million tons.
Geological reserves of natural gas – more than 5 trillion cubic meters.
Proved natural gas reserves – 1.1 trillion m³.
According to the Center for Economic Research (CER) of Uzbekistan, maintaining the current trends and volumes of resource consumption, natural gas and coal reserves in Uzbekistan will last for the next 20-30 years, while oil reserves are almost depleted.
Extraction of oil and gas resources
Oil production in Uzbekistan in 2017 amounted to 806 thousand tons, natural gas production amounted to 56.4 billion cubic meters.
The capacity of the National Company “Uzbekneftegaz” allows for the production of natural gas in the amount of about 60-70 billion cubic meters and liquid hydrocarbons in the amount of 8 million tons per year. Uzbekneftegaz JSC ranks 11th in the world in terms of natural gas production.
The largest corporations in the energy sector of Uzbekistan are CNPC (China National Petroleum Corporation), KNOC (Korea), Gazprom, Lukoil, Uzbekneftegaz.
Uzbekistan ranks 10th in the world in consumption of natural gas.
Oil and gas processing
As of the beginning of 2016, proven oil reserves are 81 million tons.
The main oil fields are located in the Karakalpak Autonomous Republic and six administrative regions: Kashkadarya, Bukhara, Surkhandarya, Namangan, Andijan and Fergana. The bulk of reserves is concentrated within the country’s largest Kokdumalak field. The development of this field (over 50% of the reserves is concentrated in the territory of Turkmenistan) is conducted in accordance with the intergovernmental Agreement between Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan, signed in March 1997. In accordance with the terms of the Agreement, part of the produced oil is supplied free of charge to the Seydi oil refinery in Turkmenistan.
Since 2003, Uzbekistan has been importing oil from the Kumkol field in southern Kazakhstan. In addition to supplies of Kazakh oil to Uzbekistan, volumes of Turkmen raw materials arrived. In 2016, China’s Petrochina delivered about 111 thousand tons of gas condensate (in 2015 – 125 thousand tons) from Turkmenistan to the Bukhara refinery.
In Uzbekistan, there are two large refineries – the Bukhara Refinery (fuel profile – 2.5 million tons per year), the Fergana Refinery (fuel-oil profile with a capacity of 5.5 million tons per year) and the Alty-Aryk Refinery (fuel-oil profile – 3.2 million tons per year). According to some reports, due to a decrease in oil production, their loading does not exceed 50%. A small Uzbek-Russian JV “Djarkurganoilproccessing” also operates in the Surkhandarya region to process heavy oil.
52% of petroleum products consumed in the country are used in the transport sector, 16% in agriculture, 13% in the power industry, 5% in industry.
The Fergana Oil Refinery (commissioned in 1959) currently produces about 60 types of petroleum products. The design capacity of the refinery is 5.5 million tons of oil per year.
Gas processing is carried out at the Mubarek gas processing plant (commissioned in 1971). Currently, the plant’s capacity is about 30 billion cubic meters of natural gas and the production of more than 570 thousand tons of gas condensate per year.
Imports of Russian oil to Uzbekistan amounted to 68.2 thousand tons in 2017.
Oil and Gas transportation
Gas pipeline China-Central Asia. It starts at the border between Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, transits through Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan and ends at the Khorgos Chinese border checkpoint. The length of the pipeline is 1833 km. Construction began at the end of June 2008, in October 2010, the second branch of the pipeline was commissioned. The construction of the third (last) branch of the gas pipeline should be completed in 2013.
Uzbekistan explored coal reserves in the amount of 1,832.8 million tons, including: brown – 1,786.5 million tons, stone – 46.3 million tons. Predicted resources amount to 323.4 million tons of coal.
Coal mining in the republic is conducted at three fields: Angren (brown coal), Shargun and Baisun (stone coal).
Joint-stock company “Uzbekcoal” is the only enterprise representing the coal mining industry in the country.
The main activities are exploration, mining, supply, storage, processing and sale of coal products, as well as a number of related minerals.
According to official statistics, Uzbekistan increased coal production by 4.4% in 2017 compared with 2016 to 4.038 million tons.
The main consumer of coal fuel is the electric power sector, which accounts for over 85% of total coal consumption.
90% of ferrous metallurgy production in the republic falls to the share of OJSC “Uzbek Metallurgical Plant” (OJSC “Uzmetkombinat”, Bekabad, Tashkent region, commissioned in 1956).
OJSC Uzmetkombinat” increased steel production by 0.4% at the end of 2012 compared to 2011 – up to 736.3 thousand tons. Previously, it processed scrap metal from all the republics of Central Asia. Currently, due to a decrease in the supply of scrap, enterprises are not fully loaded.
Copper and silver
The Almalyk mining-metallurgical Plant is the only copper producer in Uzbekistan and one of the largest producers of non-ferrous metals in the Central Asian region.
AMMP accounts for about 90% of silver production and 20 percent of gold in the republic.
The plant consists of two mining enterprises, two concentration plants and two metallurgical plants with their own infrastructure. The total volume of production is estimated at more than 300 million dollars a year.
The plant has the right to develop copper-molybdenum and lead-zinc ore deposits in the area of the city Almalyk (Tashkent region). AMMP’s raw material base is the Kalmakyr and Sary-Cheku porphyry copper ore deposits (Tashkent region) and the Uch-Kulach lead-zinc-barite ore deposit (Jizzakh region).
The processing of tungsten ores and molybdenum found in the republic is carried out by the Uzbek plant of refractory and heat-resistant metals (UzRHRM, commissioned in 1956) in Chirchik.
In terms of total gold reserves, Uzbekistan ranks fourth in the world, and in terms of production, it ranks ninth. Extracted 90 tons of gold in 2012.
According to the State Geo-Committee of Uzbekistan, currently 41 gold deposits are discovered, nine of which are being developed. Gold is mined in the river basin Zaravshan and Kyzylkum.
The size of proven and proven gold reserves in Uzbekistan is about 2.1 thousand tons. Total reserves are about 3.35 thousand tons.
Gold mining in the country is concentrated in 2 production plants – Navoi and Almalyk mining and metallurgical plants (NMMP and AMMP).
Gold production at the State Enterprise Navoi Mining and Metallurgical Combine (NMMP) in recent years amounted to more than 60 tons with a total production of this metal in the republican order of 90 tons. The NMMP industrial complex unites five metallurgical plants in Navoi (ГМЗ-1), Zarafshan (ГМЗ-2), Uchkuduk (ГМЗ-3) and Zarmitan (ГМЗ-4), Marjanbulak gold recovery plant (MGRP) in the village of Marjanbulak Samarkand.
JV MAN Auto-Uzbekistan is a joint venture of the joint-stock company Uzavtosanoat and MAN Truck & Bus AG (Germany).
SamAvto LLC (established in 2006) produces trucks with carrying capacity from four to 18 tons, as well as passenger city buses with a capacity of 37 people based on the chassis of the Japanese company Isuzu
Joint venture GM Uzbekistan (formerly UzDaewooAuto) – the production of cars, amounted to 135.5 thousand units in 2017.
Tashkent Tractor Factory (TTF) manufactures tractors and tractor trailers for unpacked transportation of cotton.
The production of electrical products is carried out by the Uzbek-Russian joint venture “Uzelektroapparat-Elektroshchit”, founded on the basis of the former head enterprise of the Scientific-Production Association “Sredazelektroapparat” (commissioned in 1941).
The largest manufacturer of household appliances is the Artel group of companies, which is in turn included in the AKFA GROUP holding. “Artel” has more than 50% share in the country, in the segment of household appliances as of the end of 2017.
The major enterprises of the industry are the Tashkent Cable Plant (now the state joint-stock company “Uzkabel”), the Andijan “Elektroapparat” and “Andijancable”. “Zenit” plants producing equipment for televisions and video equipment, and Algorithm, which have mastered the production of modern televisions and other equipment, also work in Tashkent.
The plant of household refrigerators “СИНО” with a capacity of 250 thousand pieces per year was put into operation in 1973 (then it was called the production association “Electrobytmash”).
Chinese companies Henan Henfey Electric and Hayer Group supplied and installed equipment worth 5.5 million dollars in 2004.
In Uzbekistan, a total length of railways of 6,500 kilometers, 1,100 kilometers were electrified. During the years of independence, railways were built around the Turkmen territory, which made it possible to achieve transport independence: Uchkuduk – Miskin – Nukus and Tashguzar – Baysun – Kumkurgan.
There is a high-speed railway; the line is served by Afrosiyob trains, which run seven days a week.
The annual freight turnover of the railway is about 90% of the total freight turnover of all types of transport in the country.
Uzbekistan Railways State Joint-Stock Railway Company (SJSRC) carried 68 million tons of cargo and 21.1 million passengers in 2016.
The rolling stock repair and the production of tank wagons, covered wagons and gondola cars is carried out by the “O’ZTEMIRYO’LMASHTA’MIR” Unitary Enterprise, which includes the “Tashkent Diesel Locomotive Plant”, “Andijan Mechanical Plant” (founded in 1987), Pakhtaabad Car Repair Plant”, DP “Foundry-Mechanical Plant” (founded in 2003) and Locomotive depot Samarkand.
JSC “Tashkent plant for the construction and repair of passenger cars”, produces cars for passenger rolling stock under the brand name “Made in Uzbekistan”. Contracts have been concluded for the supply of passenger cars of modern modification to Russia and Kazakhstan.
Construction of the railway “China-Kyrgyzstan-Uzbekistan” is being planned. According to the preliminary parameters of the project, the shortening of the route from East Asia to the countries of the Middle East and Southern Europe will be about 900 kilometers, and the time will be reduced by 7-8 days. The detailed rail route between China, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan will be ready by April 2018.
There is the national airline Uzbekistan Airways which includes 11 airports. Six of them have international status.
The company’s fleet consists of 27 aircrafts. The company transported 2.703 million passengers in 2017.
Uzbekistan exports – services, energy and oil products, food products, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, chemical products and products from it, cotton fiber, machinery and equipment.
There was a significant change in the export structure of Uzbekistan from 1991 to 2018: the main product of the republic was the service sector (its share in exports is 25.1%), while the share of cotton fiber in exports decreased from 59.7% to 3.4%, increased the share of food (from 3.9% to 6.3%), chemical products (from 2.3% to 6.3%), ferrous and non-ferrous metals (from 4.6% to 6.6%), machinery and equipment (from 1.7% to 2.5%).
In the structure of imports, the main share is accounted for by machines and equipment – 38.9% and chemical products and products from it – 16.5%.
Foreign trade turnover in 2018 amounted to about 33,8 billion US dollars:
Among the CIS countries, the main foreign trade partners are Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, which account for 28.7% of foreign trade turnover, among other countries – China, Turkey, the Republic of Korea, Germany, Afghanistan, Brazil, India, Iran, Latvia , Lithuania, France, USA, Italy, which account for 41.6% of the total foreign trade turnover.
The trade surplus in 2017 was $ 945.5 million.
Gold reserves – $ 26.3 billion (January 1, 2019).